This article is a continuation from “Russia as a Nuclear Power (1)”, which was published in previous issue of this journal. Its main focus is on the development of the Soviet Union’s nuclear capabilities. Following its successful hydrogen-bomb test. The Soviet Union commenced its thermonuclear bomb program, whose objective was to create a bomb with a destructive capacity of 101.5 megaton, which amounts to a TNT equivalent of 101,500,000 tons. With such a destructive power, the bomb was dubbed a “Tsar bomb”, or as Nikita Khruschev, the Soviet leader at that time, made a mention of it at the 15th session of the UN General Assembly as “Kuzma’s mother”, which could be translated as “a mother of evil”. After it had been built, this historic bomb was successfully tested on 30 October 1961 by being dropped from a plane and exploded midair over Sukhoi Nos nuclear test zone at Mityshikha Bay of the Novaya Zemlya Island in the Arctic Ocean. The test gave a record explosive yield of a nuclear bomb that still stands today.