This paper deals with the politics and administration of the Ancient Russian Kingdom in the Middle Ages, from the mid-9th Century to the mid-13th Century. The first part covers the establishment of the Kingdom, involving different historical episodes-Prince Rurik, a Varangian warrior, being invited to serve as leader of the Ruse, the move of the capital city by Prince Oleg to Kiev, the warfare to expand the kingdom by Prince lgor and the administration under the leadership of Prince Sviatoslav. Then, the paper presents the prosperity of the Ancient Russia Kingdom, from the mid-10th Century to the mid-11th Century under the rule of Prince Vladimir (960-1015) and Prince Yarolav (978-1054). The paper concludes with the break-up of the kingdom from the mid-11th Century to the beginning of the 13th Century. This was when the ancient Russian Kingdom, whose administrative centre was Kiev, was split into sub-kingdoms, ruled by young princes all of whom were Prince Vladimir Monomakha’s sons. That the kingdom became disunited made it easier for Mongol troops to attack and seize it. In December, 1240 Kiev was attacked and destroyed by Mongol troops. The Ancient Russian Kingdom was under the yoke of the Mongol for 243 years (1237-1480).