This article studies Russia as one of the world’s first two nuclear power. It begins with the construction of Russian atomic bombs and nuclear war-headed missiles, which originated from the study of radioactivity. However, the competition between the Free World led by the United States and the socialist world led by the Soviet Union resulted in the construction of the most destructive weapons men have ever made. The competition started with the success of the United States in developing atomic bombs: the first actual use of the bombs was the one dropped over Hiroshima on 6 August 1945. It was four years later before the Soviet Union succeeded in its nuclear bomb programme. The article also examines the various processes whereby the Soviet government accelerated the successful development of its nuclear bombs. These included even the use of secret information gathered by its intelligence units and the construction of a secret laboratory where German scientists were employed in research and experiments. The article ends with the success of the Soviet Union in developing hydrogen bombs-an achievement made in advance of the United States.