The condition of a drought season in the Northeastern Region of Thailand has recently been more severe and lasted longer causing lower water supply in the water resources in the Province of Udonthani. Together with the higher demand of water for socioeconomic activities in the City of Udonthani, one of the regional centers of Northeastern Thailand and Indochina Region, is a major problem threatening to hinder the urban development of Udonthani, one of the fastest growing cities in Thailand. This research aims to identify what factors contributed to the risk of water shortage are, where the risk areas are, and who are at risk in the City of Udonthani. The core methodology of this study is based on the pressure and release model, where risk is the function of hazard exposure, vulnerability, and capacity. Physical and socioeconomic factors contributed to the risk of water shortage are analyzed and identified using a factor analysis. Geographic information systems are used to perform a spatial analysis and to create maps of risk and social vulnerability indices. The result of analysis shows that the factors affecting the water shortage in the city includes (1) land use, (2) social vulnerability, and (3) capability of water sources. The area with the highest risk of water shortage is the area of Makkhaeng subdistrict in the Udonthani Municipality. In addition, the result of social vulnerability analysis shows that the areas outside the Udonthani Municipality are more vulnerable than the areas inside the municipality.